# APM

Denver Public Schools
Department of Curriculum and Instruction

I. General Course Information
Course Code: Assigned by Curriculum and Instruction Department
Course Title(s): Algebraic Principles in Marketing
Department: Marketing
Credits per Semester: 5.0/semester
Credit Area: Elective
Duration: One year
Maximum Semesters: Two
Prerequisites: None
Fees/Materials: Determined by Instructor
Notes: This course is taught by Marketing CTE teachers who have
completed training using the national Math-in-CTE model and
incorporate that format in their classrooms. The curriculum will
be integrated in the Marketing 3 and 4 courses.

II. Course Description
This course is based on the Denver Public Schools Mathematics Content Standards and emphasizes math concepts and ideas embedded in the CTE curriculum. The students learn math application skills necessary in the business world as they work on small and large group projects. Students will demonstrate mathematical achievement on traditional and non-traditional assessment tasks. All lessons incorporate algebraic thinking, communication skills and the use of appropriate technology used in the
business world (graphing calculators, computers, Internet). This course enables the student to demonstrate the use of Algebraic principles, as they would be used in day-today marketing functions.

III. District Standards/Learning Objectives
DPS MATHEMATICS STANDARDS
STANDARD 1 – Number Sense – Students develop number sense, understand and use appropriate math vocabulary, understand and use numbers and number relationships in problem-solving situations, and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems.
STANDARD 2 – Algebraic Concepts – Students use algebraic methods to explore, model, and describe patterns and functions involving numbers, shapes, data, and graphs in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems.
STANDARD 3 – Data Analysis – Students use data collection and analysis, statistics and probability in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems.
STANDARD 6 – Computation – Students link concepts and procedures as they develop and use computational techniques, including estimation, mental arithmetic, paper-and pencil, calculators, computers and other manipulatives in problem-solving situations and communicate the reasoning used in solving these problems.
STANDARD 7 – Technology – Students understand and use appropriate technologies to perform mathematical constructions and computations, simulate mathematical experiences, and to access, process, and communicate information related to the application of mathematics in problem-solving situations.

ACT COLLEGE READINESS STANDARDS – MATHEMATICS
Based on standards posted on website: http://www.act.org/standard/index.html

1. Basic Operations & Applications
2. Probability, Statistics & Data Analysis
3. Numbers: Concepts & Properties
4. Expressions, equations and Inequalities
5. Graphical Representations
6. Measurement
DPS – BUSINESS AND MARKETING EDUCATION STANDARDS
STANDARD 1 –Finance and Economics – The student will demonstrate knowledge and understanding of accounting concepts and the analytical tools need to make reasoned decisions about economic and financial issues – both personal and professional.
In order to meet the standard, the student will be able to:
1.5 Use mathematical procedures to analyze and solve business problems for such areas as savings, investments, and credit.
1.6 Apply mathematical operations to solve problems.
1.7 Identify opportunity costs and trade-offs involved in making choices about how to use scare economic resources.
1.11 Explain the role of exchange and money in an economic system and describe the effects of interdependence on economic activity.
1.12 Describe the role of markets and prices in the U.S. economy.
1.13 Analyze the role of the law of supply and demand in the U.S. economy.
1.15 Manage limited personal financial resources and recognize that more wants and needs of members of a society can be satisfied if wise consumer decisions are made.
1.19 Demonstrate an understanding of money management in daily life.
1.20 Demonstrate an understanding of how financial markets, investment strategies and fraud affect their financial decisions.
1.23 Use decision-making techniques and management tools for successful insurance operations.
STANDARD 5 – Information Systems – The student will utilize a variety of computer software demonstrating a mastery of workplace technical skills.
In order to meet the standard, the student will be able to:
5.4 Enter, sort, and retrieve data from spreadsheets; and create formulas, use functions, create charts, and graphs.
5.5 Enter, sort, retrieve data from databases; define records and fields; and create simple, complex queries, reports and forms.
5.10 Integrate word processing, desktop publishing, database, spreadsheet, presentation graphics, multimedia and imaging software as well as industry specific and subject-specific software into real life problems.
STANDARD 7 – Management – The student will demonstrate informed decision making techniques and use management tools for successful business operations.
In order to meet the standard, the student will be able to:
7.3 Analyze financial data influenced by internal and external factors in order to make long-term and short-term management decisions.
7.4 Justify the need to gain and maintain competitive advantage through the use of internal comparisons and external research services.
7.11 Apply generally accepted operations management principles and procedures to the design of an operations plan.
STANDARD 8 – Marketing – The student will demonstrate and apply marketing functions and strategies both domestically and internationally.
In order to meet the standard, the student will be able to:
8.3 Identify and explain how external factors influence and dictate marketing decisions.
8.5 Explain the role of pricing in the marketing process and describe and use various pricing strategies
8.6 Explain and apply distribution processes and methods to develop distribution plans
8.8 Develop, implement, and evaluate a marketing research product
8.10 Explain, identify and develop a marketing plan encompassing all the necessary components.
8.11 Describe and apply forecasting principles and methods to determine sales potential for specific products.
IV. Course Outline
1) Distribution
a) Channels of Distribution
• Identify channel members – direct vs. indirect
• Compare channels of distribution options
• Develop channels of distribution plans for various products
b) Physical Distribution
• Identify transportation systems and services that move products from manufacturers to consumers
• Calculate and compare shipping costs and corresponding profits for products
• Assess storage requirements and expenses for different types of products
DPS Math Standards
 Understand and apply ratio in problem-solving situation (Standard 1)
 Solving problems involving functional relationships using graphing calculators and/or computers
as well as appropriate paper-and-pencil techniques (Standard 2)
 Representing and solving problems using linear programming and difference equations (Standard
2)
 Solving real-world problems with formal use of combinations and permutations (Standard 3)
 Analyzing and solving optimization problems (Standard 6)
 Analyzing and using critical path algorithms (for example, determining in which order to perform a
set of tasks in a large project) (Standard 6)
 Creating spreadsheet macros and program databases for specific purposes (Standard 7)
ACT Math Standards
 Solve multi-step arithmetic problems that involve planning or converting units of measure (1)
 Manipulate data from tables and graphs (2)
 Find and use the least common multiple (3)
 Solve real-world problems using first-degree equations (4)
 Identify solutions to simple quadratic equations (4)
 Write expressions, equations, or inequalities with a single variable for common algebra settings (e.g., rate and distance problems and problems that can be solved by using proportions)(4)
DPS CTE Standards
o Calculate fixed and variable costs, analyze data and estimate the projected total income and total expenses for a given time period (1.6)
o Demonstrate an understanding of rational economic decision making by explaining the costs and benefits of alternative choices in a given situation (1.7)
o Apply the steps in a rational decision-making process to a situation involving an economic decision by an individual and a group (1.7)
o Explain why a decrease in transaction costs will result in an increase in the number of exchanges being made (1.11)
o Explain why there is variance in price for a given item bought from different suppliers (1.15)
o Design and enter formulas that permit the user to ask “what if” questions to analyze spreadsheet data (5.4)
o Identify sources for raw materials and parts, both domestic and international (7.11)
o Determine the most efficient means for distributing a product or service (8.6)
o Develop a distribution plan for a given product (8.6)
a) The Role of the Buyer
• Terms used to describe organizational buyers
• Methods of determining inventory needs
• Create a 6-month merchandise plan and explain its calculations
• List the 3 types of purchasing situations
• Work through contracts involving discounts and invoice dating terms, i.e. 2/10, net 30.
DPS Math Standards
 Using number sense and mental arithmetic to estimate and justify the reasonableness of solutions to problems involving real numbers (Standard 1)
 Understand and apply ratio in problem-solving situation (Standard 1)
 Solving problems involving functional relationships using graphing calculators and/or computers as well as appropriate paper-and-pencil techniques (Standard 2)
 Understanding and applying concepts of financial transactions such as time value of money, leasing rates, etc. (Standard 6)
 Analyzing and solving optimization problems (Standard 6)
 Creating spreadsheet macros and program databases for specific purposes (Standard 7)
ACT Math –
 Calculate the average, given the frequency counts of all the data values (2)
 Order fractions (2)
 Solve real-world problems using first-degree equations (4)
 Write expressions, equations, or inequalities with a single variable for common algebra settings (e.g., rate and distance problems and problems that can be solved by using proportions)(4)
DPS CTE Standards
o Compare cash price to installment price in order to make a purchase decision (1.7)
o Demonstrate an understanding of rational economic decision making by explaining the costs and benefits of alternative choices in a given situation (1.7)
o Apply the steps in a rational decision-making process to a situation involving an economic decision by an individual and a group (1.7)
o Explain why changes in relative price ratios among resources create incentives for resources to move or be reallocated in our economy (1.12)
o Explain why supply and demand shifts occur (1.13)
o Use published consumer resources to collect information for making buying decision (1.15)
o Compare and contrast the production of parts internally vs. procurement from external sources (7.11)
o Describe how economies of scale attained through mass production can affect pricing strategy (8.5)
o Describe why sales forecasting is an important determinant of business success (8.11)
3) Pricing
a) Price Planning
• Explain the goals of pricing
• Determine return on investment (ROI) and market shares
b) Factors involved in price planning
• Analyze demand elasticity and supply and demand theory
• Determine break even point
• Analyze the law of diminishing marginal utility
• Create spreadsheets to answer “what if” statements in regards to pricing
DPS Math Standards
 Understand and apply ratio in problem-solving situation (Standard 1)
 Solving problems involving functional relationships using graphing calculators and/or computers as well as appropriate paper-and-pencil techniques (Standard 2)
 Representing and solving problems using linear programming and difference equations (Standard 2)
 Understanding and applying concepts of financial transactions such as the time value of money, leasing rates, etc. (Standard 6)
 Analyzing and solving optimization problems (Standard 6)
 Designing and using computer simulations (Standard 7)
ACT Math –
 Solve multi-step arithmetic problems that involve planning or converting units of measure (1)
 Calculate the average, given the frequency counts of all the data values (2)
 Order fractions (3)
 Solve real-world problems using first-degree equations (4)
 Write expressions, equations, or inequalities with a single variable for common algebra settings (e.g., rate and distance problems and problems that can be solved by using proportions)(4)
 Determine the slope of a line from points or equations (5)
DPS CTE Standards
o Compute the percent of markup when based on the cost or when based on the selling price (1.6)
o Compute the percent of markdown given the regular selling price and reduced price (1.6)
o Demonstrate an understanding of rational economic decision making by explaining the costs and benefits of alternative choices in a given situation (1.7)
o Apply the steps in a rational decision-making process to a situation involving an economic decision by an individual and a group (1.7)
o Explain how efficient production and allocation of goods and services in a market economy are based on pricing information (1.12)
o Explain why supply and demand shifts occur (1.13)
o Explain why equilibrium price changes due to shifts in supply and demand occur (1.13)
o Explain credit ratings and describe why they are important to consumers in our economic system (1.15)
o Design and enter formulas that permit the user to ask “what if” questions to analyze spreadsheet data (5.4)
o Create and edit charts and graphs (5.4)
o Describe ways to increase market share (7.4)
o Calculate a product’s price using a variety of methods (8.5)
o Explain the concept of demand elasticity and how it affects price (8.5)
o Explain how international currency exchange rates affect the prices of exported product (8.5)
o Describe how economies of scale attained through mass production can affect pricing strategy (8.5)
o Describe why sales forecasting is an important determinant of business success (8.11)
4) Market Research
a) Types, Trends and Limitations of Marketing Research
• Identify the methods of conducting marketing research
• Analyze the accuracy of sales forecasting
• Calculate the expenses related to different types of marketing research and the corresponding response rate
b) Conducting Market Research
• Gather information from secondary data sources for a particular business
• Create an instrument to be used to gather primary data
• Interpret the marketing information gathered from the primary and secondary sources
DPS Math Standards
 Understand and apply ratio in problem-solving situation (Standard 1)
 Solving real-world problems with formal use of combinations and permutations (Standard 3)
 Testing hypotheses using appropriate statistics (Standard 3)
 Exploring the effect of sample size on the results of statistical surveys using experiments and simulations (Standard 3)
ACT Math –
 Calculate the average, given the frequency counts of all the data values (2)
 Manipulate data from tables and graphs (2)
 Compute straightforward probabilities for common situations (2)
 Use Venn diagrams in counting (2)
DPS CTE Standards
o Create and edit charts and graphs (5.4)
o Explain the purposes of internal research services and why businesses use them (e.g., consumer affairs, consumer panels and marketing research) (7.4)
o Identify the steps in the marketing research process (8.8)
o Develop and implement a marketing research project (8.8)
5) Entrepreneurship and Finance
a) Risk Management
• Explain the nature and scope of risk management
• Analyze probability charts for various types of risk
• Calculate necessary insurance expenses for various businesses
• Explain the difference between primary (i.e. personal investments) and secondary (i.e. venture capital) sources of financing
• Develop a personal financial statement
• Determine start-up costs for a business
c) Financial Aspects of a Business Plan
• Estimate business income and expenses
• Prepare an income statement
• Create a balance sheet
• Interpret a cash flow statement
DPS Math Standards
 Using number sense and mental arithmetic to estimate and justify the reasonableness of solutions to problems involving real numbers (Standard 1)
 Creating and interpreting discrete and continuous probability distributions, and understanding their application to real-world situations (for example, insurance) (Standard 3)
 Testing hypotheses using appropriate statistics (Standard 3)
 Understanding and applying concepts of financial transactions such as the time value of money, leasing rates, etc. (Standard 6)
 Creating spreadsheet macros and program databases for specific purposes (Standard 7)
ACT Math –
 Calculate the average, given the frequency counts of all the data values (2)
 Manipulate data from tables and graphs (2)
 Compute straightforward probabilities for common situations (2)
 Work problems involving positive integer exponents (3)
 Solve real-world problems using first-degree equations (4)
 Identify solutions to simple quadratic equations (4)
DPS CTE Standards
o Compute compound interest and the resulting compound amount at the maturity date for savings and investment (1.5)
o Compute rates of return for various instruments and compare to make wise financial decisions (1.5)
o Prepare a simplified amortization schedule (1.5)
o Demonstrate an understanding of rational economic decision making by explaining the costs and benefits of alternative choices in a given situation (1.7)
o Apply the steps in a rational decision-making process to a situation involving an economic decision by an individual and a group (1.7)
o Explain why supply and demand shifts occur (1.13)
o Analyze the factors that affect the rate of return on a given savings or investment plan (e.g., risk, current interest rate, liquidity) (1.15)
o Explain how all types of insurance are based on the concepts of risk sharing and statistical probability (1.15)
o Demonstrate an understanding of banking services (1.19)
o Understand the factors involved in buying and selling stocks, bonds and mutual funds (1.20)
o Evaluate the importance of insurance as it applies to current events such as catastrophes, business ventures and failures, lawsuits, and social change (1.23)
o Use rating and classification systems to make accurate, fair predictions in determining insurance premiums (1.23)
o Design and enter formulas that permit the user to ask “what if” questions to analyze spreadsheet data
o Analyze the data which is shown on financial statements and show how the data is interpreted for important decisions (e.g., income statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement, and statement of net worth) (7.3)
o Compare and contrast traditional and nontraditional sources for securing financing (7.3)
a) Explain the purpose and importance of a business plan
b) Develop a business’s organization plan
c) Construct a marketing plan
d) Identify the financial elements of a business plan
e) Describe and analyze financing sources for business
DPS Math Standards
 Solving problems involving functional relationships using graphing calculators and/or computers as well as appropriate paper-and-pencil techniques (Standard 2)
 Solving real-world problems with formal use of combinations and permutations (Standard 3)
 Understanding and applying concepts of financial transactions such as the time value of money, leasing rates, etc. (Standard 6)
 Using appropriate technologies commonly found in business and industry that require specific mathematical knowledge or skills (for example, spreadsheet accounting, data management using data base, graphic design) (Standard 7)
ACT Math –
 Manipulate data from tables and graphs (2)
 Solve real-world problems using first-degree equations (4)
 Identify solutions to simple quadratic equations (4)
 Write expressions, equations, or inequalities with a single variable for common algebra settings (e.g., rate and distance problems and problems that can be solved by using proportions)(4)
DPS CTE Standards
o Calculate fixed and variable costs, analyze data and estimate the projected total income and total expenses for a given time period (1.6)
o Determine finance/additional charges, periodic payment, total cost, and APR on an installment contract (1.6)
o Calculate depreciation and apply appropriate accounting concepts and techniques for acquisition, depreciation, and disposal of property, plant and equipment (1.6)
o Integrate word processing, desktop publishing, database, spreadsheet, presentation graphics, multimedia and imaging software as well as industry-specific and subject-specific software into real life problems. (5.10)
o Demonstrate the ability to use the latest technology in marketing activities (8.3)
o Identify the steps involved in the development of a marketing plan (8.10)
o Develop a marketing plan for a product given a set of circumstances (8.10)